Welcome to colleges9.in

Science is an enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world.

In modern use, science is "often treated as synonymous with ‘natural and physical science’, and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use." This narrower sense of "science" developed as a part of science became a distinct enterprise of defining "laws of nature", based on early examples such as Kepler's laws, Galileo's laws, and Newton's laws of motion. In this period it became more common to refer to natural philosophy as "natural science". Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the disciplined study of the natural world including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. This sometimes left the study of human thought and society in a linguistic limbo, which was resolved by classifying these areas of academic study as social science. Similarly, several other major areas of disciplined study and knowledge exist today under the general rubric of "science", such as formal science and applied science.

Parts of a series on Science
Formal Sciences:

The formal sciences are the branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, theoretical computer science, information theory, systems theory, decision theory, statistics, and some aspects of linguistics.

Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world, but instead with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules. Methods of the formal sciences are, however, applied in constructing and testing scientific models dealing with observable reality.

Physical Sciences:

Physical Science is an encompassing term for the branches of natural science and science that study non-living systems, in contrast to the life sciences. However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena.

Life Sciences:

The life sciences comprise all fields of science that involve the scientific study of living organisms, like plants, animals, and human beings. However, the study of behavior of organisms, such as practiced in ethology and psychology, is only included in as much as it involves a clearly biological aspect. While biology remains the centerpiece of the life sciences, technological advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have led to a burgeoning of specializations and new, often interdisciplinary, fields.

Here is the partial list of life science fields:
  • Affective neuroscience
  • Biobehavioral science
  • Biomedical science
  • Biochemistry
  • Biocomputers
  • Biocontrol
  • Biodynamics
  • Bioinformatics
  • Biology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomechanics
  • Biomonitoring
  • Biophysics
  • Biopolymers
  • Botany
  • Cell biology
  • Cognitive neuroscience
  • Computational neuroscience
  • Developmental biology
  • Ecology
  • Environmental science
  • Evolutionary biology
  • Evolutionary genetics
  • Food science
  • Genetics
  • Genomics
  • Health sciences
  • Immunogenetics
  • Immunology
  • Immunotherapy
  • Medical devices
  • Medical imaging
  • Microbiology
  • Molecular biology
  • Neuroscience
  • Oncology
  • Optometry
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • Pharmacology
  • Physiology
  • Plant sciences
  • Proteomics
  • Sociobiology
  • Sports science
  • Structural biology
  • Systems biology
  • Zoology
Social Sciences:

Social science" is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to a plurality of fields outside of the natural sciences. Typically, the social sciences are the fields of scholarship that study society including: anthropology, archaeology, business administration, criminology, economics, geography, linguistics, political science, sociology, international relations, communication, and, in some contexts, history, law, and psychology.

Behavioural Sciences:

The term behavioural science encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world. It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behaviour through controlled and naturalistic experimental observations and rigorous formulations. Examples of behavioral sciences include psychology, cognitive science, and anthropology.

Applied Science:

Applied science is the application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment. Examples include testing a theoretical model through the use of formal science or solving a practical problem through the use of natural science.

Fields of engineering are closely related to applied sciences. Applied science is important for technology development. Its use in industrial settings is usually referred to as research and development (R&D).

Applied science differs from fundamental science, which seeks to describe the most basic objects and forces, having less emphasis on practical applications. Applied science can be like biological science and physical science.