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Physiotherapy - Paramedical

Physiotherapy (or physical therapy), often abbreviated PT, is a health care profession which aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities. Physical therapists (or physiotherapists) are primary healthcare professionals who diagnose and treat individuals of all ages, from newborns to the very oldest, who have medical problems or other health-related conditions, illnesses, or injuries that limit their abilities to move and perform functional activities as well as they would like in their daily lives. Physical therapists examine each individual and develop a plan using treatment techniques to promote the ability to move, reduce pain, restore function, and prevent disability. In addition, PTs work with individuals to prevent the loss of mobility before it occurs by developing fitness and wellness-oriented programs for healthier and more active lifestyles, providing services to individuals and populations to develop maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. This includes providing services in circumstances where movement and function are threatened by aging, injury, disease or environmental factors. Functional movement is central to what it means to be healthy.

Physical therapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing quality of life and movement potential within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment/intervention, habilitation and rehabilitation. This encompasses physical, psychological, emotional, and social well being. Physical therapy involves the interaction between physical therapist, patients/clients, other health professionals, families, care givers, and communities in a process where movement potential is assessed and goals are agreed upon, using knowledge and skills unique to physical therapists. Physical therapy is performed by a physical therapist (PT) or physiotherapist (physio), and sometimes services are provided by an assistant (PTA) acting under their direction.

Physiotherapists practice in many settings, such as outpatient clinics or offices, inpatient rehabilitation facilities, skilled nursing facilities, extended care facilities, private homes, education and research centers, schools, hospices, industrial workplaces or other occupational environments, fitness centers and sports training facilities.

Physical therapists also practice in non-patient care roles such as health policy, health insurance, and health care administration and as health care executives. Physical therapists are involved in the medical-legal field serving as experts, performing peer review and independent medical examinations.

Education qualifications vary greatly by country. The span of education ranges from some countries having little formal education to others requiring masters or doctoral degrees.


Physical therapy has many specialties:

  • Cardiopulmonary
  • Geriatric
  • Neurological
  • Orthopedic
  • Pediatric
  • Integumentary
  • Women’s Health

M.P.T Disciplines:
M.P.T Cardio respiratory and Intensive Care:

Cardio respiratory fitness refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity. Regular exercise makes these systems more efficient by enlarging the heart muscle, enabling more blood to be pumped with each stroke, and increasing the number of small arteries in trained skeletal muscles, which supply more blood to working muscles. Exercise improves the respiratory system by increasing the amount of oxygen that is inhaled and distributed to body tissues.

Cardio respiratory fitness is also sometimes referred to as Aerobic fitness.

There are many benefits of cardio respiratory fitness. Some include improving stamina, longer endurance, increase in energy, better sleep, and can make a person feel happier. It can also reduce the risk of heart disease, lung cancer, type 2 diabetes, stroke, and many other sicknesses. Cardiorespiratory fitness helps improve the condition of your lungs and heart, and will make you feel strong.

For an average person, cardio respiratory exercise is recommended at least every week for a healthier body and stronger build.

M.P.T Community-based rehabilitation:

The aim of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is to help people with disabilities, by establishing community-based programs for social integration, equalization of opportunities, and rehabilitation programs for the disabled. The strength of CBR programs is that they can be made available in rural areas with limited infrastructure, as program leadership is not restricted to professionals in healthcare, education, vocational or social services. Rather, CBR programs involve the people with disabilities themselves, their families and communities, as well as appropriate professionals.

M.P.T Musculoskeletal disorders:

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can affect the body's muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves. Most work-related MSDs develop over time and are caused either by the work itself or by the employees' working environment. They can also result from fractures sustained in an accident. Typically, MSDs affect the back, neck, shoulders and upper limbs; less often they affect the lower limbs.

Health problems range from discomfort, minor aches and pains, to more serious medical conditions requiring time of MSDs are a priority for the EU in its Community strategy. Reducing the musculoskeletal load of work is part of the 'Lisbon objective', which aims to create 'quality jobs' by:

  • Enabling workers to stay in employment; and
  • Ensuring that work and workplaces are suitable for a diverse population.

M.P.T Cardiology Vascular and pulmonary specialties:

Cardiovascular and pulmonary rehabilitation physical therapists treat a wide variety of individuals with cardiopulmonary disorders or those who have had cardiac or pulmonary surgery. Primary goals of this specialty include increasing endurance and functional independence. Manual therapy is used in this field to assist in clearing lung secretions experienced with cystic fibrosis. Disorders, including heart attacks, post coronary bypass surgery, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis, treatments can benefit from cardiovascular and pulmonary specialized physical therapists.

M.P.T Geriatric:

Geriatric physical therapy covers a wide area of issues concerning people as they go through normal adult aging but is usually focused on the older adult. There are many conditions that affect many people as they grow older and include but are not limited to the following: arthritis, osteoporosis, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, hip and joint replacement, balance disorders, incontinence, etc. Geriatric physical therapists specialize in treating older adults.

M.P.T Pediatric:

Pediatric physical therapy assists in early detection of health problems and uses a wide variety of modalities to treat disorders in the pediatric population. These therapists are specialized in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of infants, children, and adolescents with a variety of congenital, developmental, neuromuscular, skeletal, or acquired disorders/diseases. Treatments focus on improving gross and fine motor skills, balance and coordination, strength and endurance as well as cognitive and sensory processing/integration. Children with developmental delays, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, or torticollis may be treated by pediatric physical therapists.

M.P.T Neurology:

Neurological physical therapy is a field focused on working with individuals who have a neurological disorder or disease. These include Alzheimer's disease, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), ALS, brain injury, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, and stroke. Common impairments associated with neurologic conditions include impairments of vision, balance, and ambulation, activities of daily living, movement, muscle strength and loss of functional independence.

M.P.T Orthopedic:

Orthopedic physical therapists diagnose, manage, and treat disorders and injuries of the musculoskeletal system including rehabilitation after orthopaedic surgery. This specialty of physical therapy is most often found in the out-patient clinical setting. Orthopedic therapists are trained in the treatment of post-operative orthopedic procedures, fractures, acute sports injuries, arthritis, sprains, strains, back and neck pain, spinal conditions and amputations.

Joint and spine mobilization/manipulation, therapeutic exercise, neuromuscular reeducation, hot/cold packs, and electrical muscle stimulation (e.g., cryotherapy, iontophoresis, and electrotherapy) are modalities often used to expedite recovery in the orthopedic setting. Additionally, an emerging adjunct to diagnosis and treatment is the use of sonography for diagnosis and to guide treatments such as muscle retraining. Those who have suffered injury or disease affecting the muscles, bones, ligaments, or tendons will benefit from assessment by a physical therapist specialized in orthopedics.

M.P.T Sports medicine:

Sports medicine is an area of health and special services that apply medical and scientific knowledge to prevent, recognize, manage, and rehabilitate injuries related to sport, exercise, or recreational activity.

Sports Medicine Team:
Certified Athletic Trainer (ATC):

The ATC is a highly skilled professional specializing in the health care of physical activity Certified Athletic Trainer Responsible for care & prevention of athletic injury without an ATC coaching staff is responsible ATC serves as a liaison between the team physician, coach, parent & athlete Responsibilities.

  • Applying protective/supportive techniques that allow the athlete to regain physically First aid care
  • Initiate treatment plan/ protocol
  • Design & implementation of rehab protocols
  • active lifestyle
  • Inventory and purchasing of supplies
  • Completing medical/accidental record form

Team Physician

Promotes the success of the AT program, “cornerstone” of the medical team, available for emergencies.


  • Supervising pre-participation physical & medical history
  • Clearing of players for return to play after injury
  • Work with ATC & SAT’s in further development of AT program


  • Maintain good physical condition
  • Selecting, fitting, and maintaining protective equipment
  • Play by the rules
  • Follow the instruction of the coaches and the ATC


Can assist by keeping the child healthy, if kept updated on the injury Should be informed of recommended treatment at home for injury or if they are hurt


  • enforcing fair rules
  • Monitoring playing conditions
  • Cooperating with ATC & physician when injury occur & when environmental hazards exist


  • Plan practice including: conditioning & training of the athlete & teach techniques /rules of sport
  • Selecting ,fitting & maintaining protective things
  • Supervision of practice/ game facilities
  • Update education by attending clinics that review rule changes, skill development, CPR/FA

ATS’s (athletic training students)Duties:

  • Assisted by the ATC to develop skills in immediate care of injury, preventative techniques and basic treatment protocol
  • Maintain clean athletic training facility
  • Inventory control: keeping track of supplies and equipment
  • Packing FA kits
  • Preparing H20, in ice &take to fields
  • Taping, wrapping, change dressings, minor treatment, FA procedures


  • Prevention
  • Clinical education & diagnostic
  • Immediate care
  • Treatment, rehab & reconditioning
  • Organizations & admin
  • Professional responsibility (education & counseling)