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Pharmacology - Medical

Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of action. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. The field encompasses composition and properties, , , therapy, and medical applications and ant pathogenic capabilities. The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and. The former studies the effects of the drugs on biological systems, and the latter the effects of biological systems on the drugs. In broad terms, discusses the interactions of chemicals with biological, and discusses the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of chemicals from the biological systems. Pharmacology is not synonymous with and the two terms are frequently confused. Pharmacology deals with how drugs interact within biological systems to affect function. It is the study of drugs, of the reactions of the body and drug on each other, the sources of drugs, their nature, and their properties. In contrast, is a biomedical science concerned with preparation, dispensing, dosage, and the safe and effective use of medicines.

Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, mainly plant extracts. Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a biomedical science that applied the principles of scientific experimentation to therapeutic contexts.

Clinical Pharmacology

The medical field of medication effects on humans and animals.


Effects of medication on nervous system functioning.


Effects of medication on the brain; observing changed behaviors of the body and read the effect of drugs on the brain.


Clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs.


Application of genomic technologies to new drug discovery and further characterization of older drugs.


Study of effects of drugs in large numbers of people.


Study of harmful or toxic effects of drugs.

Theoretical Pharmacology

Study of metrics in Pharmacology.


How medicines are dosed. It also depends upon various factors like age, climate, weight, sex, and so on.


A branch of pharmacology dealing especially with the composition, use, and development of medicinal substances of biological origin and especially medicinal substances obtained from plants also known as deriving medicines from plants.

Behavioral Pharmacology

Behavioral pharmacology, also referred to as psychopharmacology, is a interdisciplinary field which studies behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs. It incorporates approaches and techniques from neuropharmacology, animal behavior and behavioral neuroscience, and is interested in the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of action of psychoactive drugs. Another goal of behavioral pharmacology is to develop animal behavioral models to screen chemical compounds with therapeutic potentials. People in this field (called behavioral pharmacologists) typically use small animals (e.g. rodents) to study psychotherapeutic drugs such as antipsychotics, antidepressants and anxiolytics, and drugs.

Environmental Pharmacology

Environmental pharmacology is a new discipline. Focus is being given to understand Gene–environment interaction, drug-environment interaction and toxin-environment interaction. There is a close collaboration between the Environmental science and Medical community in addressing these issues. It is recognized that healthcare can itself be a cause of Environmental damage as well as its remediation. Human health and ecolology is intimately related. Demand for more pharmaceutical products is destroying countless species of animals and plants, placing the public at risk. The entry of chemicals and drugs into the Aquatic ecosystem is a more serious concern today. In addition, the production of some Illegal drugs pollutes drinking water supply by releasing carcinogens. The pharmaceutical industry is encouraged to pay greater attention to the environmental impact of its products. More and more biodegradability of drugs are needed. It means environment friendly drugs could be designed. General standards for discharge of environment pollutants is implemented strictly and environmental impact assessment is checked frequently by health and other concerned regulators. Today, in Environmental Pharmacology, the topics which are covered include Pharmacoenvironmentology and Ecopharmacology which is all about the study of Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment.