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Genetic - Engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct human manipulation of an organism’s genome using modern DNA technology. It involves the introduction of recombinant DNA or synthetic genes into the organism of interest, and does not require the use of classical genetic methods, although traditional breeding methods are typically used for the propagation of recombinant organisms.

The most common form of genetic engineering involves the insertion of new genetic material at an unspecified location in the host genome. This is accomplished by isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence containing the required genetic elements for expression, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Other forms of genetic engineering include gene and knocking out specific genes via engineered nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases or engineered homing end nucleases.

Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, biotechnology, and medicine. Genetically engineered plants and animals capable of producing biotechnology drugs more cheaply than current methods called pharming.